KidsDoc Monthly Newsletter from AllForKids

August & September-2009, Vol-1, Issue-20

By Dr. M.Vijayalakshmi M.D(Peds), M.D(USA), FAAP, DAA
Content Sources: Centers for Disease Prevention and Control(CDC), American Academy of Pediatrics

 

Latest from AllForKids

AllForKids will be conducting a free spirometry camp….. on october 17 th,saturday between 2pm to 4.30 pm at the clinic. Spirometry is a very useful tool to measure the lung function of children and adults who have a history of wheezing or asthma. It is painless and non invasive and most children over the age of 6 years can perform this test. It involves breathing into a tube connected to a computer which measures the lung capacity of the person Please call 0484-645 2772 to register.

Annual Influenza Vaccination (Flu Shot) for 2009-10 is now available at AllForKids. Please call ahead for appointments.

 

Sep 20-26th is ‘Turn Off’ Week…

Parents can lead the way by turning off TV and other media screens for a week…

Screen Time cuts into family time and is a leading cause of obesity in both adults and children. Excessive use of screens for recreational purposes leads to a more sedentary lifestyle and that is unhealthy for all of us, mentally and physically.

Turning off the screen gives us time to think, read, create, and do the things we never have time for. This allows us to connect with our families and engage in our communities. We feel good about ourselves as we grow more physically and mentally active.

Turn off week is supported and endorsed by many organizations including American Academy of Pediatrics.

Reading and Writing Milestones for Children


Reading and Writing Milestones

Reading And Writing

This is a list of general milestones that kids follow on their road to reading and writing. Please note that the milestones may vary from child to child.


Infant (Age 1)

    Children begin to:
  • imitate sounds they hear in language
  • respond when spoken to
  • look at pictures
  • reach for books and turn the pages with help
  • respond to stories and pictures by vocalizing and patting the pictures

Toddlers (Ages 1–3)

    Children begin to:
  • answer questions about and identify objects in books
  • name familiar pictures
  • use pointing to identify named objects
  • pretend to read books
  • finish sentences in books they know well
  • scribble on paper
  • know names of books and identify them by the picture on the cover
  • have a favorite book and request it to be read often

Preschool (Age 3)

    Children usually begin to:
  • explore books independently
  • listen to longer books that are read aloud
  • retell a familiar story
  • recite the alphabet and begin to sing the alphabet with prompting and cues
  • make continuous symbols that resemble writing
  • imitate the action of reading a book aloud

Kindergarten (Age 4)

    Children usually begin to:
  • recognize familiar signs and labels, especially on signs and containers
  • make up rhymes or silly phrases
  • recognize and write some of the letters of the alphabet
  • read and write their names
  • name letters or sounds that begin words
  • match some letters to their sounds
  • use familiar letters to try writing words

Kindergarten (Age 5)

    Children usually begin to:
  • understand rhyming and play rhyming games
  • match some spoken and written words
  • understand that print is read from left to right, top to bottom
  • write some letters and numbers
  • recognize some familiar words
  • predict what will happen next in a story
  • retell stories that have been read to them

First and Second Grade (Ages 6–7)

    Children usually begin to:
  • read familiar stories
  • sound out or decode unfamiliar words
  • use pictures and context to figure out unfamiliar words
  • use some common punctuation and capitalization in writing
  • self-correct when they make a mistake while reading aloud
  • show comprehension of a story through drawings

Second and Third Grade (Ages 7–8)

    Children usually begin to:
  • read longer books independently
  • read aloud with proper emphasis and expression
  • use context and pictures to help identify unfamiliar words
  • understand the concept of paragraphs and begin to apply it in writing
  • correctly use punctuation
  • correctly spell simple words
  • write notes, like phone messages and email
  • enjoy games like word searches
  • use new words, phrases, or figures of speech that they've heard
  • revise their own writing

Fourth Through Eighth Grade (Ages 9–13)

    Children usually begin to:
  • explore and understand different kinds of texts, like biographies, poetry, and fiction
  • understand and explore expository, narrative, and persuasive text
  • read to extract specific information, such as from a science book
  • identify parts of speech and devices like similes and metaphors
  • correctly identify major elements of stories, like time, place, plot, problem, and resolution
  • read and write on a specific topic for fun, and understand what style is needed
  • analyze texts for meaning

Disease Focus: TB

TB

Basic TB Facts

"TB" is short for tuberculosis. TB disease is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal.

The good news is that tooth decay and other oral diseases that can affect children are preventable. The combination of dental sealants and fluoride has the potential to nearly eliminate tooth decay in school-age children.


Protection against TB

In India BCG vaccine is a part of childhood vaccination schedule. BCG vaccine is proven to be effective in as much as 80% of cases.


How TB Spreads

TB is spread through the air from one person to another. The TB bacteria are put into the air when a person with active TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings. People nearby may breathe in these bacteria and become infected.


TB is NOT spread by

  • shaking someone’s hand
  • sharing food or drink
  • touching bed linens or toilet seats
  • sharing toothbrushes
  • kissing

Latent TB Infection and TB Disease

Not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick. As a result, two TB-related conditions exist: latent TB infection and active TB disease.


  • Latent TB Infection

    TB bacteria can live in your body without making you sick. This is called latent TB infection (LTBI). In most people who breathe in TB bacteria and become infected, the body is able to fight the bacteria to stop them from growing. People with latent TB infection do not feel sick and do not have any symptoms. The only sign of TB infection is a positive reaction to the tuberculin skin test or TB blood test. People with latent TB infection are not infectious and cannot spread TB bacteria to others. However, if TB bacteria become active in the body and multiply, the person will get sick with TB disease.

  • TB Disease

    TB bacteria become active if the immune system can't stop them from growing. When TB bacteria are active (multiplying in your body), this is called TB disease. TB disease will make you sick. People with TB disease may spread the bacteria to people they spend time with every day. Many people who have latent TB infection never develop TB disease. Some people develop TB disease soon after becoming infected (within weeks) before their immune system can fight the TB bacteria. Other people may get sick years later, when their immune system becomes weak for another reason. For persons whose immune systems are weak, especially those with HIV infection, the risk of developing TB disease is much higher than for persons with normal immune systems.


The Difference between Latent TB Infection and TB Disease

A Person with Latent TB Infection A Person with TB Disease
• Has no symptoms

• Has symptoms that may include:

- a bad cough that lasts 3 weeks or longer

- pain in the chest

- coughing up blood or sputum

- weakness or fatigue

- weight loss

- no appetite

- chills

- fever

- sweating at night

• Does not feel sick • Usually feels sick
• Cannot spread TB bacteria to others • May spread TB bacteria to others
• Usually has a skin test or blood test result indicating TB infection • Usually has a skin test or blood test result indicating TB infection
• Has a normal chest x-ray and a negative sputum smear • May have an abnormal chest x-ray, or positive sputum smear or culture
• Needs treatment for latent TB infection to prevent active TB disease • Needs treatment to treat active TB disease

TALKING TO KIDS AND TEENS
ABOUT SOCIAL MEDIA

Content Source: American Academy of Pediatrics


Social Media

Social Media

Today’s teens are connected to one another, and to the world, via digital technology more than any previous generation. Recent data suggests that social media (SM) venues like Facebook and MySpace have surpassed e-mail as the preferred method of communication in all age groups. While today’s tweens and teens may be more digitally savvy than their parents, their lack of maturity and life experience can quickly get them into trouble with these new social venues. For this reason, it is imperative that parents talk with their children of all ages about social media and monitor their online SM use to help them navigate this new online social world. How parents talk with their kids and teens will vary slightly by age depending on the topic being discussed. These tips will help you start that journey with your family.

  • Learn about these technologies first hand. There is simply no better way than to have a profile yourself. It will also enable you to "friend" your kids and monitor them on line.
  • Let them know that their use of technology is something you want and need to know about.
  • For kids of all ages, ask daily: “Have you used the computer and the Internet today?”
  • Technology use will vary by age. Tweens are likely to be using more instant messaging and texting, while teens use those technologies and also networking sites such as Facebook. (These tools often are referred to as “platforms” for social networking.) Ask daily how your family used those tools with questions such as: “What did you write on Facebook today?” “Any new chats recently?” “Anyone text you today?”
  • Share a bit about your daily SM use as a way to facilitate daily conversation about your kids’ online habits.
  • Get your kids talking about their SM lives if you can just so you know what they are doing.
  • Keep the computer in a public part of your home, such as the family room or kitchen, so that you can check on what your kids are doing online and how much time they are spending there.
  • Talk with other parents about what their kids of similar ages are using for SM. Ask your kids about those technologies as a starting point for discussion. If they are in the same peer group, there is a good chance they are all using the same platforms together. For example:
  • For teens: “Mrs. Smith told me Jennifer uses Facebook. Is that something you’ve thought of doing? Do you already have a profile? If so, I’d like to see it.”
  • For tweens and older elementary school kids: “Let’s look at your text log today together. I’d like to see who’s been texting you.”
  • For all ages, emphasize that everything sent over the Internet or a cell phone can be shared with the entire world, so it is important they use good judgment in sending messages and pictures and set privacy settings on social media sites appropriately.
  • Discuss with kids of every age what “good judgment” means and the consequences of poor judgment, ranging from minor punishment to possible legal action in the case of bullying.
  • Remember to make a point of discouraging kids from gossiping, spreading rumors, bullying or damaging someone’s reputation using texting or other tools.
  • To keep kids safe, have your kids and teens show you where the privacy features are for every SM venue they are using. The more private, the less likely inappropriate material will be received by your child, or sent to their circle of acquaintances.
  • Be sure you are where your kids are online: IM, Facebook, MySpace, etc. Have a policy requiring that you and your child “friend” each other. This is one way of showing your child you are there, too, and will provide a check and balance system by having an adult within arm’s reach of their profile. This is important for kids of all ages, including teens.
  • Show your kids you know how to use what they are using,and are willing to learn what you may not know how to do.
  • Create a strategy for monitoring your kids’ online SM use, and be sure you follow through. Some families may check once a week and others more sporadically. You may want to say “Today I’ll be checking your computer and cell phone.” The older your kids are, the more often you may need to check.
  • Consider formal monitoring systems to track your child’s email, chat, IM and image content. Parental controls on your computer or from your Internet service provider, Google Desktop or commercial programs are all reasonable alternatives.
  • Set time limits for Internet and cell phone use. Learn the warning signs of trouble: skipping activities, meals and homework for SM; weight loss or gain; a drop in grades. If these issues are occurring due to your child being online when they should be eating, sleeping, participating in school or social activities, your child may have a problem with Internet or SM addiction. Seek professional help if any of these symptoms are occurring.
  • Check chat logs, emails, files and social networking profiles for inappropriate content, friends, messages, and images periodically. Be transparent and let your kids know what you are doing.


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